Ovens, hot plates, heating mantles and tapes, oil baths, salt baths, sand baths, air baths, hot-tube furnaces, hot-air guns, and microwave ovens are all used in most labs. For large objects such as metal parts, industrial-scale ovens called kilns are used.
Heating materials increases their resistance to external forces, which is why we need heat to soften metals so that they will work with a hammer or press brake. The harder material becomes when heated, the more plastic it will be after cooling. This allows you to use less energy to deform the metal into the shape you want.
There are two types of heating methods: direct and indirect. With direct heating, the material being heated contacts the source of heat directly, such as electric heating pads used to warm your hands on cold days or the flame from a torch. With indirect heating, the object being heated does not contact the source of heat; instead, it is surrounded by something that gets hot, such as the oven floor or an oven jacket. As the object being heated turns red-hot, it begins to melt any solid particles that may be present in its structure, including other substances within it. These gases become what is known as waste heat. As they leave the object being heated, they transfer some of their heat to surrounding objects.
Bunsen burners, hot air ovens, hot plates, heating mantles, muffle furnaces, hot oil baths, and microwave digestion systems are all typical heating technologies in laboratories. The device to be used is determined by the application. For example, a hot plate is useful for heating small samples quickly, while a furnace is better for maintaining constant temperatures over long periods of time.
Heating materials to their melting points or higher for analysis can damage lab equipment. Chemicals that melt at low temperatures may not fully dissolve in solvents that freeze at high temperatures. This can cause crystals to grow inside the test tube or other container, blocking fluid channels or preventing adequate mixing. Heating samples past their melting points can also cause samples to vaporize, leaving behind only the solid residue which can block filters or contaminate pipettes.
Some laboratory instruments are specifically designed for heat-treating samples. These include incubators, water baths, and steam autoclaves. Incubators provide a controlled environment for growing microorganisms or plants. Water baths are used for keeping sample tubes or vials at a fixed temperature for an extended period of time. Steam autoclaves use pressurized steam to sterilize samples in an automated system.
Not all laboratory instruments are able to withstand the high temperatures required for some experiments.
Several types of equipment, including the Bunsen burner, laboratory oven, hot plate, and incubator, may do this.
Laboratory equipment and applications
|hot plate||Used for heating substances and liquids in beakers and flasks.|
|Meker Burner||Used for heating and exposing items to flame.|
|micropipette||Used for accurately measuring and delivering very small volumes of liquid-usually 1 mL or less.|
In the laboratory, just one tool is used to heat equipment. This tool is called a "heat block." The term "heat sink" is also used for devices that release heat into their environment.
Heatsinks are used to remove heat from components of electronic devices. They do this by transferring heat away from the component using any of several different methods: conduction, radiation, or convection. Conduction is the transfer of heat through solid materials such as metal heatsinks. Heat flows through these metals at a rate dependent on their temperature. Radiation is the emission of infrared photons by objects with higher than normal temperatures. Convection is the movement of air over hot surfaces which then becomes cooled down. Heatsinks made of high thermal conductivity materials (such as copper) work by conduction.
Low-thermal-conductivity materials (such as nylon or rubber) work by radiation and convection. These materials store heat inside themselves until it is needed again. When heat needs to be removed quickly, these materials can reach extremely high temperatures before they start losing heat by conduction.
High-density foam works by conduction and convection.
Here are five alternative heating sources to explore for your house to help you determine what is best for you and your family.
Substances with a high specific heat capacity are excellent for use as a material in the construction of kettle handles, insulators, and oven covers because a large quantity of heat causes only a little change in temperature, implying that the material will not become too hot too quickly! Some common examples are iron, copper, and ceramic.
Materials with a high thermal conductivity are essential to prevent heat from spreading through your body. The human body is a good example: It conducts heat very poorly by comparison with other substances. Bones are about the most efficient conductor of heat around, but even they cannot keep up with the heat produced by muscles contracting or bones moving. Hair and skin are less efficient conductors but still much better than anything else found in nature.
There are many different materials with different properties when it comes to thermal conductivity. For example, metals like copper have a high conductivity but are also good at conducting electricity; therefore, they should not be used in circuits that require an electrical connection without insulation between them. Organic materials such as wood can have extremely low thermal conductivities but may be flexible enough to allow air flow which reduces heating/cooling problems during use.
Sometimes it is desirable to have a material with both a high heat capacity and high thermal conductivity.
Specific heat applications in everyday life Substances with a low specific heat capacity are ideal for use as materials in cooking instruments such as frying pans, pots, kettles, and so on, since they heat fast when a tiny quantity of heat is applied. Water is utilized in the suppression of fires. As it turns out, its specific heat is very high (4.18 kg/m³ C). Thus, a small amount of water can put out a large fire because there's nothing left to cool down.
Liquids have an upper limit on how hot they can get before they boil away. This is called the boiling point. Water has a boiling point of 100°C or 212°F. Higher boiling points mean that liquids will not completely disappear into their vapors but rather remain as a liquid until the temperature reaches this value. Oil, which has a higher boiling point than water, will not become a vapor until after it has been heated to about 330°C or 650°F. At these temperatures, oil would just burn up.
Gases are very efficient at transferring heat because there are many molecules moving around quickly. This means that they can be used to heat large objects rapidly. Firefighters utilize this property by blowing air onto a burning surface to spread the fire over a larger area.
The maximum temperature of any object is determined by its melting point.