The surname Marshall originally appeared in many English counties, including Cambridgeshire, Somerset, and Oxfordshire, where William le Marechal, Gunnilda le Marescall, and Robert Marescallus were all documented in the Hundredorum Rolls of 1273. The name may have been derived from an old family name that was originally "Merechesal", which in turn was derived from a German name meaning "master of the horse". This in turn was derived from "Herr", which is German for "lord" or "master".
In England, Scotland, and Wales, the surname Marshall originates from several places named after John Marshall, who established himself in England during the 11th century. These include Marshall County, Kentucky, Marshall County, Missouri, and Marshall Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania. In addition, there are two naval ships named for John Marshall: one was a Confederate ship and the other was an aircraft carrier used by the United States Navy.
In Canada, the surname Marshall originates from three regions: Marshall County, Vermont; Worcester County, Massachusetts; and Hastings County, Vancouver Island.
In Australia, the surname Marshall originates from four states: Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania, and New South Wales.
In New Zealand, the surname Marshall originates from two provinces: Marlborough and Nelson.
The surname Marshall derives from an early Norman surname. It is taken from the Old French "mareschal," which is derived from the Germanic words "marah," which means "horse," and "scalc," which means "servant." As a result, the word was initially applied to someone who cared for horses.
The family name first appeared in England around 1066 when Reginald de Marshall was appointed sheriff of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire. He was probably a descendant of Aedan de Marescallus, who came to Britain with William the Conqueror in 1066.
The earliest known use of the name Marshall as a first name is 1412. It was adopted by the English lawyer and politician George Marshall (1737-1816). He served as Secretary at War under three British kings and is regarded as the father of the British army. The name has been associated with various positions including secretary of state, ambassador, and lord lieutenant.
In religion, George Marshall was a devout Anglican priest who served as Bishop of London from 1783 to 1816. He is also known for writing several books on theology and church history.
The name Marshall first appeared in the United States around 1638 when Henry Marshall arrived in Maryland. He was granted land near what is now Baltimore after he fought in King Philip's War against the Wampanoag Indians.
The surname Marshall was originally discovered in Lothian, where the clan is supposed to be derived from Robert, an early chieftain of the Catti tribe and likely one of Scotland's earliest inhabitants. In 1006, Robert fought alongside King Malcolm II in the battle of Panbridge against Camus, the king of the Danes. After this victory, Malcolm made Robert governor of Edinburgh, which at that time was still a small village. When Malcolm died in 1034, Robert continued to serve as guardian for their young king, Donald III, until he too died. Thus began the era of the Marchers, or Lords of Lorne, who were responsible for much of the expansion of Scotland into its present form.
The first recorded spelling of the family name is around 1000 when Edmund de Mauley married to Alysia de Morville had the status of nobleman. They lived in Northumberland during this time period. The surname was later adopted by members of the Welsh branch of the family who settled in South Wales around 1180. The word "marshal" comes from the Welsh marc'r, which means "warrior".
The most famous member of the family is probably George Randolph Marshall (1807-1878), who served as the first United States Army chief of engineers. He played an important role in developing the country's military infrastructure after its separation from Great Britain.
Marshall was a decent, moderately used name around the start of the twentieth century (on the Top 200 list of most favored boy names). Marshall's popularity gradually dwindled as the twentieth century passed, eventually settling at a moderate level. It's a catchy name. Marshall is a prestigious surname that has been converted into a first name.
On September 24, 1755, John Marshall was born in Germantown, Virginia. By the time John was a teenager, his father, Thomas Marshall, had grown wealthy and the family had relocated to a larger estate. Because there were no schools nearby, John acquired the most of his education from his father. He learned law from an older brother who had become a judge and took on many cases that came before the court. In addition, John learned diplomacy from his father, who had served as ambassador to France.
When John Marshall was about twenty-one years old, his father died suddenly. Since he had no children of his own, John Marshall became the wealthiest man in Virginia. In addition to his father's fortune, he owned land that was worth more than $10,000. Also, because he was a judge, John Marshall was paid monthly salaries from several cases he had pending.
Shortly after his father's death, Marshall married Mary Lewis, a widow with three children of her own. She had been married to another man, named Elisha Marshall, who had been killed in a war between England and France. The couple had only one child together: a son they named John junior.
In 1776, when Virginia broke away from Britain to form its own government, John Marshall was elected as one of the first two attorneys general of Virginia. In this role, he helped write the state's constitution and defend it against attacks from other states.